Hepatitis B virus HBV and hepatitis C virus HCV infect the livers of more than million people worldwide, and are the main causes for chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Services on Demand Journal. To develop systems that closely recapitulate human liver biology and support hepatotropic infections, tissue engineering tools have been applied to create 2-dimensional 2D3-dimensional 3Dand humanized mouse systems by using a combination of cell lines, primary human hepatocytes, or stem cell-derived cells with various extracellular matrix manipulations Table 1. Weissleder R. For more technical details on the assembly of various engineered liver model systems we recommend a collection of recent review articles. Although improvement of existing models is always beneficial, and the addition of a robust immune component is a particular need, at present, considerable progress has been made using this combination of research platforms. Using a random number generator, the growth rates were set in each loop of the equations. Tissue Eng Part A ; PCR-based assays and fixed sample imaging are both commonly used terminal assays for quantification of total pathogen burden. At any given moment, each subpopulation may not be perfectly correlated with other subpopulations Ranta et al.
MCT, Av. Getúlio Vargas, Quitandinha, CEPPetrópolis, RJ, ; Ariño & Pimm, ). and death rates (Kendall & Fox, ; Kot, ). Laboratory populations Several types of models have been used to explore are.
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MCT, Av. Getúlio Vargas, Quitandinha, CEPPetrópolis, RJ, Brazil Spatial structure is also the key feature of metapopulation models. for food scarcity through the nutritional benefits acquired (Fox.
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However, it should be noted that these cultures require significant culture expertise, and may not represent a fully differentiated adult hepatocyte phenotype.
In a classic study, Jillson investigated the responses of T. In vitro infection of adult normal human hepatocytes in primary culture by hepatitis C virus. These hemorrhagic fever viruses are prime examples of zoonotic viruses that accidentally infect humans, causing severe disease and high mortality, yet they remain understudied.
Next we briefly describe the assays typically used for the main hepatic-amplified pathogens HBV, HCV, and Plasmodium in the different systems. Conclusions and Future Work Because liver-targeting pathogens are diverse, often with narrow tropism, models that recapitulate authentic host-pathogen interactions are critical for the development of liver-acting therapeutic interventions. Infection in this system was maintained for more than 30 days and, in a proof-of-concept experiment, the authors demonstrated that the system could potentially be used for testing anti-HBV drugs.
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|Modeling host interactions with hepatitis B virus using primary and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocellular systems.
Exp Cell Res ; Stem Cell-Derived 2-Dimensional Culture Systems The platforms described in the previous section depend on access to sources of adult, primary human hepatocytes.
Selection of the most appropriate model system is guided by the combination of the specific question under interrogation, and the desired method for tracking infection responses under those circumstances. Cell Transplant ; Modeling hepatitis C virus infection using human induced pluripotent stem cells.
Author(s): Geoffrey C. Fox,Hai Zhuge; Community Grids Laboratory, School of Informatics.
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Immune surveillance by the liver. The general equation for a Kaplan-Meier survival probability at failure time t j can be written as. Characterization of the early steps of hepatitis C virus infection by using luciferase reporter viruses.
Cell ; Ecology, 51 :
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|Establishment of a novel permissive cell line for the propagation of hepatitis C virus by expression of microRNA miR Adults were introduced to the medium for one week to oviposit and then removed, thus simulating adult mortality and destabilizing these populations Costantino et al.
Statistical analysis Survival analysis was run using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test to compare survival curves from each treatment. For example, 2D cultures are easier to setup and offer the added benefit of portability, especially for such pathogens as P vivax, which lack laboratory-adapted strains and thus require on-site experimentation in endemic areas.
Cell-cell interactions are pivotal to the function of many organ systems, including the liver. Positive-strand genomic RNA is released into the cytosol on uncoating of the viral nucleocapsid, which initiates synthesis of the HCV polyprotein.
Correspondence to: and death rates (Kendall & Fox, ; Kot, ).
The study of spatially Several types of models have been used to explore. the role of spatial. Ramiro Barcelos,CEPPorto Alegre, RS, Brazil. E-mail:.
of these factors, we conducted Poisson regression models . Program (FHP) units in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro. 37 Bloch M, Fahy M, Fox S, Hayden MR. o Geoffrey Fox, Indiana University, USA . phenomena, with these models running on the computing . CEP. Petrópolis, Rio de.
In this review, we summarize key aspects of each platform, their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss biologic insights gained using models of liver infections, with a focus on HBV and HCV viruses and the major species of human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Figure 1.
Anal Chem ; The model systems and readout modalities described in this review form a list of combinations that can be used to interrogate different aspects of pathogen development. Sci Rep ; The University of Chicago Press, p.
In this system, protease activity of the HCV nonstructural protein A in infected cells causes a mitochondrial-anchored fluorescence reporter to be shuttled into the nucleus, allowing monitoring of viral replication in real time.
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|Liver histopathology and biological correlates in five cases of fatal dengue fever in Vietnamese children.
Infection in this system was maintained for more than 30 days and, in a proof-of-concept experiment, the authors demonstrated that the system could potentially be used for testing anti-HBV drugs. How to cite this article.
Key words: coupled populations, Triboliumenvironmental heterogeneity, population dynamics, model. Hence, the global extinction risk can be directly determined by features of local population dynamics. This single cell phenotypic analysis enables studies of subpopulation infection patterns and kinetics.